Class 7 – Science


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CLASS 7 – SCIENCE with following topics explained in details: Unit 1. Nutrition in Plants and Animals Unit 2. Respiration in Plants and Animals Unit 3. Reproduction in Plants and Animals Unit  4. Transport and Excretion Unit 5. Control, Co-ordination and growth  in the Living Organisms Unit 6. Health and Diseases Unit 7. Organization in the living World Unit 8. Natural Resources – Water  and Forest Unit 9. The Soil Unit 10. Heat Unit 11. Materials of daily  use Unit 12. How things Move Unit 13. Acids, Bases and Salts Unit 14. Structure of Matter Unit 15. Electric Current and its Effects Unit 16. Static Electricity Unit 17. Light Unit 18. Sound

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Unit 1. Nutrition in Plants and Animals

Introduction, Types of Nutrition, Autotrophic Nutrition, Heterotrophic  Nutrition, Nutrition in non- green Plants, Parasites, Saprophytes, Insectivorous Plants, Symbiosis, Different modes of procuring Food, Animal Nutrition, Steps in the process of Animals Nutrition, Nutrition in  Amoeba, Human Digestive System, The Alimentation Process, The  Ruminants, Components of Food, Energy from Food, Balanced Diet, Maintenance of Food Quality, Food Preservation, Prevention of Food  Wastage, Summary

Unit 2. Respiration in Plants and Animals

Introduction, Respiration, External Respiration, Internal Respiration, Types of Respiration, Aerobic Respiration, Anaerobic Respiration, Different modes of Respiration, Respiratory system of Human Beings, Nasal  Cavity, Larynx, Trachea, Bronchi, Lungs, Breathing mechanism of Man, Respiration in Plants, Summary

Unit 3. Reproduction in Plants and Animals

Introduction, Reproduction, Types of Reproduction, Types of  Reproduction in Plants, Natural Vegetative Propagation, Artificial  Vegetative Propagation, Sexual Reproduction, The Fruit, Dispersal of fruits  and seeds, Reproduction in Animals, Sexual Reproduction, Reproduction  in Humans, Birth Control, Summary

Unit 4. Transport and Excretion

Introduction, Transport system in Living Organisms, Transport of water  and food in Plants, Transport of materials in unicellular Organisms, Transport of materials in multi-cellular Organisms, Human Circulatory  System, Types of Blood Circulation, Blood, Blood Groups, Excretory system in Living Organisms, Excretion in Plants, Excretion in Unicellular  Organisms, Human Excretory Organs, The Urinary system in Man, Kidney  Failure, Kidney Transplant, Dialysis, Testing of sugar in Urine, Summary

Unit 5. Control, Co-ordination and growth in the Living Organisms

Introduction, Stimulus – Response, Types of Stimuli, Types of Responses, Co ordination, The Nervous System, Sense Organs, The mechanism of  response Co- ordination, Reflex Actions, Chemical co – ordination in Man, Co – ordination in Plants, Movement in Plants & Animals, Movement in  Plants, Movement in Animals, Movement in Humans, Growth in Plants and  Animals, Growth in Plants, Growth in Humans, Summary

Unit 6. Health and Diseases

Introduction, Good Health, Achieving good Health, Maintaining Personal  Hygiene, Maintaining Domestic Hygiene, Maintaining Community Hygiene, Use of clean Food and Water, Proper Food Selection, Eating Balanced Diet, Exercise, Rest and Recreation, Vaccination, Socio-cultural Factors, Factors affecting Health, Malnutrition, Communicable Deceases, Stress, Use of habit forming Drugs, Health care Facility, Summary

Unit 7. Organization in the living World

Introduction, Levels of Organization, Lower levels of Organization, Higher  levels of Organization, Biotic Community, Ecosystem, Biosphere, General  basis of Organization, Summary

Unit 8. Natural Resources – Water and Forest

Introduction, Water as a Natural Resource, Sources of Water, Composition  and States of Water, Water Cycle, Physical Properties of Water, Importance  of water for Life, Water Pollution, Prevention of Water Pollution, Water  Treatment, Water Scarcity, Methods of Prevent Water Scarcity, Effects of  Water Scarcity on the Life of the People, Forest, Conservation of  Forest, Interdependence of Plants and Animals, Waste Management, Sewage, Summary

Unit 9. The Soil

Introduction, Soil and its Composition, Soil Profile, Texture of Soil, Types  of Soil, Soil Formation, Soil as a Natural Resource, Absorption of Water in  Soil, Suitability of Soil for Crops, Climate, Weather Stations, Local Weather, Adaptations in Animals for Different Climate, Effect of Winter and Summer  in Soil, Summary

Unit 10. Heat

Introduction, Heat as a Form of Energy, Effects of Heat, Expansion, Measurement of Heat, Change of State, Temperature, Thermometers, Making of Thermometer, The Temperature Scales, Different modes of Heat  Transfer, Convection, Radiation, Vacuum Flask, Summary

Unit 11. Materials of daily use

Introduction, Fibres, Types of Natural Fibres, Synthetic Fibres, Corrosion  of Metals, Effects of Corrosion, Methods of Preventing Corrosion, Salinity of Sea water, Summary

Unit 12. How things Move

Introduction, Time and its Measurement, Rest and Motion, Uniform and  Non-uniform Motions, Scalar and Vector Quantities, Speed, Uniform Speed, Variable Speed, Velocity, Ticker – Timer, Summary

Unit 13. Acids, Bases and Salts

Introduction, Acids, General Properties of Acids, Basicity of Acids, Preparation of Acids, Uses of Acids, Bases, Composition of Bases, General  Properties of Bases, Acidity of Bases, Preparation of Bases, Uses of Bases, Indicators, Neutralization Reactions, Salts, Properties of Salt, Preparation  of Salt, Uses of Salts, Summary

Unit 14. Structure of Matter

Introduction, Matter is made up of Elements, Atoms and Molecules, States  of Matter, Properties of Matter in Three States, Interchangeability of States  of Matter, Brownian Movement, Diffusion, Compounds, Mixtures Difference between Compounds and Mixtures, Symbols and Formula, Modern method of using Symbols, Significance of Symbols, Chemical Formula, Valency, Guidelines for writing Chemical Formulae, Significance of Chemical Formulae, Chemical Reaction, Chemical Equation, Summary

Unit 15. Electric Current and its Effects

Introduction, Electric Current, Electrical Resistance, Circuits, Switch, Electric Fuse, Ammeter, Insulators and Conductors, Heating effect of  Electric Current, Use of Electric Current, Magnetic filed and Magnetic lines  of Force, Electro Magnetism, Magnetic field around a Straight Conductor, Magnetic field due to a Current in a Circular Coil, Magnetic field in a Solenoid, Uses of Electromagnets, The Electric Bell, Working of Electric Bell, Summary

Unit 16. Static Electricity

Introduction, Electric Charge, Like and Unlike Charges, Charging a Body, Electric Charges in Atoms, The Electron Theory, Electrification by Friction, The Electroscope, The Gold Leaf Electroscope, Flow of Charge, Conductors  and Insulators, Atmospheric Electricity, Lightning Conductor, Summary

Unit 17. Light

Introduction, Light and its Sources, Effect of Light on Plants, Rectilinear  Propagation of Light, Reflection of Light, Regular Reflection, Real and  Virtual Images, Formation of Shadows, Eclipses, Mirror, Plane Mirrors, Spherical Mirrors, Some definitions relating to Spherical Mirrors, Formation of an Image in a Spherical Mirror, Uses of mirror, Lenses, Concave Lenses, Convex Lenses, Newton’s Colour Disc, Summary

Unit 18. Sound

Introduction, Types of Sounds, Sound Produced by Animals, Production of  Sounds, Characteristics of Vibration, Characteristics of Sound, Musical  Instruments, Traveling of Sound, Hearing of Sound, Speed of Sound, Reflection of Sound, Uses of Sound, Noise and its Hazards, Summary


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