CBSE Biology Standard 12

Class 12 – Biology


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CLASS 12 – BIOLOGY with the following units explained in detail: Unit I. Reproduction, Unit II. Genetics and Evolution, Unit III. Biology and Human Welfare, Unit IV. Biotechnology and Its Applications , Unit V. Ecology and environment

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Unit I. Reproduction

Species and Speciation, Vegetative Propagation in Plants, Sexual Reproduction in Plants, Special Mode of Reproduction and Polyembryony, Animal Reproduction, Human Reproductive System, Gametogenesis in Humans, Embryogenesis in Humans

Unit II. Genetics and Evolution

Abiogenic Origin of Life, Biogenic Origin of Life, Evidences of Evolution,  Theories of Evolution, Gene Interactions, Chromosomes, Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance, Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance, Sex-linked Inheritance and Sex-Determination, Nature of Genetic Material, Transcription, Translation, Genetic Code, Gene Expression and Regulation: Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes, Gene Expression: Virus, Gene Expression: Neurospora, Mutation, DNA Fingerprinting, DNA Replication, Human Genome Project

Unit III. Biology and Human Welfare

Plant tissue culture, Cloning: Microbes, Plants and Animals, Health: Mental and Social, Disease: Bacterial, Viral and Fungal, Disease: Parasitic and Non- Communicable, Human Genetic Disorders, Cancer

Unit IV. Biotechnology and Its Applications

Biotechnology and its Applications, Recombinant DNA Technology and Gene Therapy

Unit V. Ecology and Environment

Population, Ageing, Dynamics of Ecosystem, Types of Ecosystem, Environmental Factors, Biogeochemical Cycles: Carbon, Oxygen, Water and Sulphur, Biogeochemical Cycles: Nitrogen and Phosphorous, Levels and Gradients of Biodiversity, Forest Conservation, Wildlife Conservation, Air Pollution, Water Pollution, Noise, Radiation and Soil Pollution


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