Class 8 – Geography


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CLASS  8 – GEOGRAPHY with following units explained in details : Unit 1. Natural Resources Unit 2. Land, Soil and Water Unit 3.  Minerals, Energy, Plants and Wild life Unit 4. Agriculture Unit 5. Manufacturing Industries Unit 6. Human Resources


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Unit 1. Natural Resources

Introduction, Natural Resources, Types of Resources, Biotic Resources, Abiotic Resources, Classification of Resources, Exhaustible Resources, Inexhaustible Resources, Potential Resources, Developed Resources, Agricultural Resources, Pastoral Resources, Energy Resources, Mineral Resources, Summary

Unit 2. Land, Soil and Water

Introduction, Conservation – Land resources, Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Land use, Physiographic Division of India, Soil Formation, Soil Erosion, Deforestation, Heavy and Torrential Rain, Overgrazing, Winds, Slope of the  Land, Nature of the Land, Conservation of Land and Soil, Water resources, Water resources-India, Water resources-India, Water resources-India, Conserving water and improving its Quality, Summary

Unit 3. Minerals, Energy, Plants and Wild life

Introduction, Mineral Resources, Classification of Minerals, Distribution of  Minerals, Energy Resources, Fossil fuels, Distribution of Fossil Fuels, Sources of Energy resources, Plant and Wildlife Resources, Factors  influencing plants and Wildlife Resources, Plant Resources, Forest Types, Evergreen Forests, Deciduous Forests, Uses of Forests, Conservation of  Forests, Wildlife Resources, Summary

Unit 4. Agriculture

Introduction, Agriculture, Types of Agriculture, Subsistence Agriculture, Commercial Agriculture, Extensive Agriculture, Mixed Farming, Plantation agriculture, Major Crops, Food Crops, Commercial Crops, Beverage Crops, Development of Agriculture, A farm in USA (case study), A farm in India (case study), Agricultural development in India, Summary

Unit 5. Manufacturing Industries

Introduction, Industr,  Stages of Production in Industries, Classification  of Industries, On the basis of size, On the basis of Ownership, On the basis of  Raw Material, Factors affecting industrial Location, Industrial Regions, Distribution of Major Industries, Iron and steel Industries, Textile   Industry, Information Technology, Ship-Building Industry, Automobile  Industry, Aircraft Industry, Railway Equipment Industry, Summary

Unit 6. Human Resources

Introduction, Human Resources, Importance of Human Resources, Composition of Human Resources, Population Distribution, Factors  affecting distribution of Population, Geographical Factors, Social and  Economic Factors,  Spatial distribution of population, Density, Population  Change, Summary


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