Class 8 – Biology


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CLASS 8 – BIOLOGY with following topics explained in details: Unit 1. Cell structure and Functions Unit 2. Micro Organisms Unit 3. Common Diseases Unit 4. Food Production and Management Unit 5. Reproduction in Animals Unit 6. Reaching the age of Adolescence Unit 7. Conservation of Plants and Animals Unit 8. Crop Production


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Unit 1. Cell structure and Functions

Introduction, Cells – Basic unit of Life, Variety of Shape and Size in the Cells, Types of cell, Structure of the Cell, Cell Organelles, Nucleus, Chromosomes, Difference between Plant Cell and Animal Cell, Activity to show Plant Cell, Activity to show Animal Cell, Cell division, Summary

Unit 2. Micro Organisms

Introduction, Micro Organisms or Microbes, Historical growth of Micro Biology, Occurrence of microbes, Microscope, Chief microbe groups, Bacteria, Forms of Bacteria, Reproduction, Economic importance of Bacteria, Harmful Bacteria, Protection against harmful Bacteria, Fungai, Economic Importance of Fungi, Algae, Economic Importance of Algae, Protozoa, Economic Importance of Protozoa, Viruses, Harmful effects of Microorganisms, Plant and Animal Diseases, Summary

Unit 3. Common Diseases

Introduction, Balanced diet, Personal and Domestic Hygiene, Factors affecting Health, Insanitation, Unhygienic Practices, Environmental Pollution, Mal Nutrition, Infection by Microorganisms, Bad habits Injurious to Health, Human diseases, Classification of Diseases, Communicable Diseases, Cholera, Tuberculosis, Typhoid, Poliomyelitis, Rabies, Chicken pox, Diarrhoea, Common cold, Vaccination Non communicable Diseases, Vaccination, Summary

Unit 4. Food Production and Management

Introduction, Usefulness of crop Plants, Basic requirements of Agriculture, Agricultural Implements, Agricultural Practices, Tiling or Ploughing, Leveling, Sowing of Crop, Transplantation, Manuring, Weeding, Irrigation, Harvesting, Threshing, Winnowing, Storage, Protection of Crops, Common Pests that attack Crop Plants, Scientific method of Soil Improvement, Methods of Crop Improvements, Food from Animals, Poultry Farming, Fish Farming, Apiculture, Summary

Unit 5. Reproduction in Animals

Modes of Reproduction, Male Reproductive Organs, Female Reproductive Organs, Sexual Reproduction, Fertilization, Internal Fertilization, External Fertilization, Test tube babies (VITRO BABIES),  Development of Embryo, Viviparous and Oviparous Animal, Young Ones to Adults, Asexual Reproduction, Story of Dolly, the Clone, Summary

Unit 6. Reaching the age of Adolescence

Adolscence and puberty, Changes at Puberty, Change in body Shape, Voice Change, Increased Activity of Sweat and Sebaceous Glands, Development of Sex Organs, Reaching Mental, Intellectual and Emotional maturity, Secondary Sexual Characters, Role of Hormones in Initiating Reproductive Function, Reproductive Phase of Life in Humans, How is the sex of the Baby Determined?, Hormones Other than Sex Hormones, Role of Hormones in completing the Life History of Insects and Frogs, Reproductive Health, Nutritional Needs of Adolescents, Personal Hygiene, Physical Exercise, Say “No” to Drugs, Summary

Unit 7. Conservation of Plants and Animals

Introduction, Conservation and Protection of Environment, Conservation of wildlife, Co – ordination in Plants, Movement in Plants and Animals, Growth in Plants and Animals, Summary

Unit 8. Crop Production

Introduction, Improvement in crop yields, Crop variety improvement, Crop production management, Manures and fertilizers, Irrigation, Irrigation systems, Cropping patterns, Crop rotation, Crop Protection Management, Methods of weed control, Pest, Methods of pest control, Disease control, Storage of grains, Prevention and Control Measures, Summary


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