Class 10 – Biology


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CLASS 10 – BIOLOGY with following topics explained in details: Unit 1. Nutrition Unit 2. Life Processes – Respiration Unit 3. Life processes  – Transportation Unit 4. Life processes – Excretion Unit 5. Control and Co-ordination Unit 6. Reproduction Unit 7. Heredity and Evolution Unit 8. Our Environment Unit 9. Management of Resources

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Unit 1. Nutrition

Introduction, Nutrition, Food and its function, Mode of Nutrition, Nutrition in Plants, Importance of Photosynthesis, Photosynthetic Organ, Site of Photosynthesis, Fundamental Requirements for Photosynthesis, Conditions Required for Photosynthesis, Reactions in Photosynthesis, Mechanism of Photosynthesis, Factors Affecting Photosynthesis, Nutrition  in Amoeba, Nutrition in Grasshopper, Human Digestive System, Human Digestion, Human  Digestive Glands, Summary

Unit 2. Life Processes – Respiration

Introduction, Breathing and Respiration, Functions of Respiration, Types  of Respiration, Respiration in Plants, Gas exchange in plants, Respiration in  Animals, Respiration through body surface, Respiration through Gills, Respiration through Skin, Respiration through Tracheae, Human Respiratory System, The Voice Box, Demonstration of breathing  Mechanism, Exchange of gases in Tissues, Physiology of breathing and  Respiration, Emphysema, Summary

Unit 3. Life processes – Transportation

Introduction, Transport of materials, Transportation of materials in Plants, Absorption of Water, Absorption of mineral Salts, Transport of food and  other Substances, Transportation in human Beings, Function of Blood, Blood Clotting, Blood Groups, Structure of human Heart, Working of human Heart, Pulse and heart Beat, Double circulation in Man, Hepatic portal  System, Lymphatic System, Summary

Unit 4. Life processes – Excretion

Introduction, Excretion, Excretory products, Excretion in Plants, Excretory organs of Animals, Organs of excretion in Man, Excretory  system in Man, Anatomy of kidney, Functions of kidney, Structure of  Nephron, Working of Nephron, composition of urine, Osmoregulation, Artificial Kidney, Summary

Unit 5. Control and Co-ordination

Introduction, Plant movements, Coordination in Plants, Chemical  coordination in Animals, Endocrine glands and their Hormones, Hypothalamus, Pituitary Gland, Pineal gland, Thyroid Gland, Parathyroid  Glands, Thymus Gland, Adrenal Gland, Pancreas, Gonads, Placenta, Nervous System, Structure and working of Neurons, Nerves, Central  nervous System, Divisions of Brain, Spinal Cord, Reflex actions, Simple  reflex arc, Peripheral Nervous System, Cranial nerves, Spinal nerves, Autonomic Nervous System, Differences between nervous and hormonal  co-ordination, Summary

Unit 6. Reproduction

Introduction, Reproduction, Types of reproduction, Asexual  Reproduction, Natural Vegetative propagation, Artificial Vegetative  propagation, Sexual reproduction, Sexual reproduction in Plants, Pollination, Characteristics of insect pollinated flowers, Characteristics of  wind pollinated flowers, Fertilization in plants, Post fertilization changes, Reproduction in Animals, Human reproductive system, Male reproductive  system, Female reproductive system, Sexual cycle in female, Fertilization, Post fertilization changes, Test tube babies, Amniocentesis, Population  Control, Sexually transmitted diseases, Summary

Unit 7. Heredity and Evolution

Introduction, Some early views of heredity, Accumulation of variation during reproduction, Rules of inheritance: Mendel’s contribution, Monohybrid cross, Dyhybrid cross, Mendel’s law of inheritance, Expression of Traits, Chromosomes, Genes and DNA, Structure of DNA and  RNA, DNA and Genetic Engineering, Sex Determination, Environmental determination of sex, The Origin of Life, Modern theory of origin of life, Organic Evolution, Mechanism of Evolution, Theory of inheritance of  acquired Characters, Theory of evolution by Charles Darwin, Modern views on organic Evolution, Speciation, Evidences of organic Evolution, Evidences from Paleontology, Evidences from Comparative morphology  and Anatomy, Embryological Evidences, Evolution and Classification, Evolution by stages, Human Evolution, Summary

Unit 8. Our Environment

Introduction, Ecological balance, Environmental Problems, Pollution and  pollutants, Types of pollution, Air Pollution, Common Air Pollutions, Effects of Air Pollution, Control of Air Pollution, Water Pollution, Water Pollutants, Effects of Water Pollution, Control of Water Pollution, Land  Pollution, Sources of Land Pollution, Land Pollutants, Effects of Land  Pollution, Control of Land Pollution, Noise pollution, Radio active  pollution, Ecosystem and its components, Biotic components, Abiotic  components, Types of ecosystem, Food chains, Food web, The flow of  energy in an ecosystem, Vegetarian food habits can provide more energy, Ecological pyramids, Biomagnification, Effects of human activities on  environment, Ozone depletion, Causes of ozone depletion, Impact of ozone  depletion, Control of ozone depletion, Management of garbage produced, Present garbage management practices, Sewage treatment, Conservation  and Protection of Environment, Conservation of wildlife, Summary

Unit 9. Management of Resources

Introduction, Conservation and judicious use of Natural Resources, Factors to be considered for development of Resources, Potable water, Use  of three ’R’s to save Environment, Forests and its conservation, Conservation of Wildlife, Dams, The effects of unplanned Technological  Growth, Alternative to Dams, Water harvesting, components of water harvesting, Surface run off harvesting, Disadvantages of Rainwater  Harvesting, Fossil fuels, Euronorms, Sustainability of Natural Resources, Summary


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